Initial Question:


Can evolution move faster than its normal rate?

Initial Model


348rr_New-Sheet.png





Initial Claim


Evolution can become faster because if the environmental changes increase and/or the birth rate increases then animals will evolve faster.

Initial Evidence


When the population or the risk of death was different the mice's evolutionary track was different. When the coefficient that is based off of the challenges facing the mice fluctuated the evolutionary track either sped up or slowed down. So in the video it showed the coefficient as .01 and .10. It took a thousand generations for the whole population to evolve when the coefficient was .01 but when the coefficient is .10 the population evolved in a hundred generations. This means the evolutionary process sped up when the coefficient was higher.

Final Model

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Final Claim


Evolution can happen faster in hotter weather or in isolated groups

Final Evidence


In the video watched in class, the mouse experiment had a coefficient that took into account reproduction speed population size, time and when that was changed, the evolution of the species either slowed down or sped up. So lets have one mouse who was brown fur around red furred mice were the rest. Depending on the coefficient it would take more time for the who population to change. A coefficient of .01 would take a thousand of generations for the population to change while a coefficient of .10 would take only a hundred of generations for the population to change.
Another evidence was that scientists did a study of 45 species in the tropics and their counterparts in different areas in the world. It was found that the tropical species were more mutated and changed over time than the other species. This is one of the reasons why the tropics are so diversified.
Scientists have looked at plants DNA and found that the the nitrogenous bases are being switched more than other plants. That means that the plants will have more mutations for natural selection to "choose" the fittest from.
http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evosite/evo101/VIIA1bPunctuated.shtml
http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/12583046/ns/technology_and_science-science/t/evolution-happens-faster-tropics/

Reasoning


In the tropics, weather is warmer than in most other areas in the world. This means the chemical reactions in the DNA replication process will move much faster than normal because all the molecules are speeding up because of the heat. With that replication process going faster, it means that more mistakes will be made. Those mistakes in the DNA are usually where the nitrogenous bases are switched into a different pattern. That different pattern is a mutation and those mutations start to add up. Even though most of those mutations are deadly, there will also be more good and beneficial mutations because there is a greater number of mutations to be that type of mutation that will be better for the animal and species. With more mutations there is more chance for evolution in that species which regular species will not have. A study was done with 45 different species in the tropical area and similar species outside the tropics and it showed that the species in the tropics had more changes and changed much more often in the tropics. Another theory that is also made is the "refuge/niche conservationism", part of punctuated equilibrium, which is where a part of a group of species is seperated from the main group because they, hypothetically, moved across the mountain but were not able to move back. This group will have a different environment and will evolve faster because the gene pool is much smaller so ther eis less genes to be replaced by the mutated genes than the main group. This isolated species will mutate faster and natural selection will happen faster because of the smaller population size. When the two groups come back together, notable changes will be made with the isolated group while not as many changes can be noted in the regular group. In a larger population it takes thousands of more years to evolutionize as much as a isolated species does in a couple of hundred years. Look at the mouse population, when it is larger and the coefficient is smaller it takes more generations to evolve than if the population was smaller and isolated.