How can variation lead to new species?


Claim:


Variations of traits in a species can lead to a new form of that trait, which, over time, can evolve and become widespread enough to create a new species that is different from the original species.


Argument:


Evidence that suggests that a new species can be formed from variations can be seen from the white peppered moth. The white peppered moth was originally white with light spots, so it could blend in with the soft light colored trees. However in England during the Industrial Revolution pollution was very bad. Pollution caused a variation of the moths to become more prevalent over the course of about 50 years. The variation that occurred was that the black moth population skyrocketed, and therefore causing the white one to go down. This moth could blend in with the soot covered trees, and therefore was better suited for an environment like this. Although this variation doesn't make the black peppered moth a new species, it is the first step of making a new species from the original white peppered moth species, and if more variations change the black peppered moth so drastically that it can no longer reproduce with the white peppered moths, then it will be classified as a new species. Now that the factories have turned to a cleaner technology the white peppered moths have returned. This is due to the fact that with the cleaner environment, they are more likely to survive.

The black and white peppered moths is known to many scientists as a classic example of evolution in modern day society.


Model:


General Model:
bubblus_MC_Hammer.png
Moth Specific Model:
bubblus_MC_Hammer_(moths).png












This is an example of the black and white peppered moths.
external image actual.jpg

This is an example of how four new species of a moth are formed from an original one.
Tolype.jpg

Links:


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peppered_moth_evolution (This information on Wikipedia was proven true by http://noreligionblog.wordpress.com/2010/02/01/how-fast-does-a-mutation-spread/)
http://www.experiment-resources.com/industrial-melanism.html
http://www.truthinscience.org.uk/site/content/view/127/65/